Track: Sustainability in Supply Chain, Enterprise Operations and Strategies
Worldwide are working to support the transition of internal combustion engine vehicles to electric (battery-based) vehicles. The electric vehicle program has faltered because the sales target for electric motorcycles until early 2022 reached only 60%. One reason is that investment in electric vehicles is still considered relatively high. The results of previous studies regarding the battery ownership model significantly reduce investment in electric vehicles. Swap batteries are expected to enter the end of life (EoL) phase after 5 - 10 years of use. End of life swap batteries have the potential to impact the environment. Studies related to the management and handling of EoL swap batteries are very open and relevant to be carried out. In this article, the study begins with a review of related literature. Then continues with a study of determining the technical criteria when it is appropriate for a swap battery to be declared EoL, and ends with a study of the EoL electric motorcycle swap battery (EMSB) management framework to be treated so that it can enter the second phase of life. Criteria are determined by considering technical and environmental aspects. The proposed treatment is reuse, repair, refurbishment, remanufacturing, and recycling. This systematic review of the reverse logistics framework is expected to create a sustainable supply chain.